Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is when acid backflows from the stomach and into the esophagus. This backflow is caused by an abnormally relaxed or weakened valve (the esophageal sphincter) between the stomach and esophagus. Acid in the esophagus can cause frequent heartburn and can damage the esophageal lining. Laparoscopic fundoplication is used to treat GERD by preventing the backflow of acid into the esophagus.
- Frequent heartburn
- Acid taste in back of throat or mouth (bitter- or sour-tasting fluid)
- Pain in upper abdomen
- Worsening symptoms when bending or lying down
- Chest pain
- Difficulty swallowing
- Cough, hoarseness, or sore throat
Laparoscopic fundoplication reinforces the esophageal sphincter, preventing the excessive backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus. In this procedure, the top of the stomach is wrapped around the lower esophagus.
Laparoscopic fundoplication usually requires one night in the hospital. You should be able to return to normal activities within one to two weeks. You should continue to take your anti-reflux medication until your follow-up appointment.
The gallbladder stores the bile that the liver produces and then releases it into the main bile duct, where it then drains into the small intestine to assist with digesting fats. If your body is not processing cholesterol correctly, the gallbladder can produce gallstones. Occasionally, the gallbladder will produce symptoms associated with gallstones even if stones are not present (a condition called biliary dyskinesia).
- Back pain
- Shoulder pain
- Pain after eating (specifically in the upper mid or right side of the belly)
Surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy) is required due to gallstones or biliary dyskinesia. In a cholecystectomy, the gallbladder is removed laparoscopically via a small incision by the naval.
You may experience right-shoulder pain for the first day or two after surgery. Patients can resume normal activities within one or two weeks. You may experience some food intolerances, but these are usually temporary.
A muscle biopsy is used to diagnose diseases involving muscle tissue. Conditions that can cause muscle weakness and pain include problems with the nervous system, connective tissue, vascular system, or musculoskeletal system. Conditions that may be diagnosed by muscle biopsy include muscular dystrophy, trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, ALS, and polymyositis.
A muscle biopsy is done by inserting a biopsy needle into a muscle and removing a tissue sample. In some cases, a larger sample may be required, which will require an open biopsy (done through a small incision in the skin). Your surgeon will remove tissue from a specific muscle and view the cells under a microscope.
You may experience bruising and discomfort around the site of the biopsy. Be careful to keep the area clean and dry. Follow our wound care instructions.
A nerve biopsy is used to diagnose serious nerve disease.
Nerve biopsy is performed under local anesthesia as an outpatient procedure. It is most often performed on the ankle, forearm, or along a rib. An incision is made in the skin, and a small piece of the nerve is removed. The sample is examined under a microscope.
The biopsy site may be sore for several days following the procedure. Be careful to keep the biopsy site clean and dry. Follow our wound care instructions.
A pilonidal cyst is an abnormal pocket of skin filled with hair and other debris usually located near the tailbone (above the cleft of the buttocks). Pilonidal cysts are often caused by an ingrown hair but can also be caused by excessive sitting. If the cyst becomes infected, it can be very painful.
- Pain at the site of the cyst
- Reddening of the skin around the cyst
- Drainage from an opening in the skin
In some cases, draining the cyst is sufficient treatment. In other cases, the pilonidal cyst needs to be excised surgically (a cystectomy). The cyst is removed along with any pilonidal sinuses (channels that have developed off the cyst).
Post-surgical wound packing is required for 4-8 weeks after the procedure. You will be given very specific wound care instructions to follow during the recovery period.